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REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2017  |  Volume : 54  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 111-130

Temporo-spatial distribution of insecticide-resistance in Indian malaria vectors in the last quarter-century: Need for regular resistance monitoring and management


1 ICMR-National Institute of Malaria Research, New Delhi, India
2 ICMR-National Institute of Malaria Research, New Delhi; Department of Zoology, Berhampur University, Berhampur, India
3 National Institute of Malaria Research, Field Unit, RLTRI Campus, Raipur; Jal Sagar Apartment, College Road, Nadiad, India
4 ICMR-National Institute of Malaria Research, New Delhi; Central University of Tamil Nadu, Thiruvarur, India

Correspondence Address:
Kamaraju Raghavendra
Scientist ‘G’, ICMR-National Institute of Malaria Research, Sector–8, Dwarka, New Delhi–110077
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


PMID: 28748832

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The Indian vector control programme similar to other programmes in the world is still reliant on chemical insecticides. Anopheles culicifacies is the major vector out of six primary malaria vectors in India and alone contributes about ⅔ malaria cases annually; and per se its control is actually control of malaria in India. For effective management of vectors, current information on their susceptibility status to different insecticides is essential. In this review, an attempt was made to compile and present the available data on the susceptibility status of different malaria vector species in India from the last 2.5 decades. Literature search was conducted by different means mainly web and library search; susceptibility data was collated from 62 sources for the nine malaria vector species from 145 districts in 21 states and two union territories between 1991 and 2016. Interpretation of the susceptibility/resistance status was made on basis of the recent WHO criteria. Comprehensive analysis of the data indicated that An. culicifacies, a major vector species was resistant to at least one insecticide in 70% (101/145) of the districts. It was reported mostly resistant to DDT and malathion whereas, its resistant status against deltamethrin varied across the districts. The major threat for the malaria control programmes is multiple-insecticide-resistance in An. culicifacies which needs immediate attention for resistance management in order to sustain the gains achieved so far, as the programmes have targeted malaria elimination by 2030.


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