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RESEARCH ARTICLE
Year : 2018  |  Volume : 55  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 184-188

A laboratory simulation study on suppression of resistance genes by differential exposures to an insecticide in Anopheles stephensi Liston population


1 ICMR–National Institute of Malaria Research, New Delhi, India
2 School of Studies in Zoology, Jiwaji University, Gwalior, Madhya Pradesh, India

Correspondence Address:
Kamaraju Raghavendra
Raghavendra, Scientist ‘G’, Vector Control Division, ICMR-National Institute of Malaria Research, Sector-8, Dwarka, New Delhi-110 077
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0972-9062.249126

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Background & objectives: Insecticide applied at optimum dosage and coverage delays the development of resistance in disease vectors. The study was aimed to test the hypothesis whether decrease in exposure to insecticide leads to decrease in selection of insecticide resistance in mosquitoes. The mosquitoes were variably exposed to insecticide in the laboratory by simulating the variations in insecticide sprays applied in the field. Methods: The study was carried out on DDT resistant adults of Anopheles stephensi. Mosquitoes were differentially exposed to impregnated papers of DDT (4%), that were differentially masked to 25, 50, and 75% area with an unimpregnated Whatman No.1 filter paper, and to a positive control without any masking, i.e. 100% exposure area. The study was conducted for five generations and at each generation mosquitoes were exposed to differentially masked impregnated papers, and percent mortality was calculated. Results: The observed survival rate in differential exposures was more with the increase in heterozygous genotype resistance-susuceptible (RS) frequency. Resistant gene frequency with differential exposures (25 to 75%) was in the range of 0.38–0.54 for the F0 generation, which increased to 0.84–0.93 for the F4 generation. In 100% exposure it was 0.18 in F0 generation, which increased to 0.58 in the F4 generation. The resistant gene frequencies in the population showed increasing trend with decrease in exposure in contrast to complete exposure. Interpretation & conclusion: Variable simulated exposures resulted in precipitation of increased resistance while complete exposure resulted in lower levels of resistance, signifying the importance of optimum dosage and coverage in the indoor residual spray in delaying/avoiding the development of insecticide resistance in the disease vectors.


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