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  Citation statistics : Table of Contents
   2018| April-June  | Volume 55 | Issue 2  
    Online since October 1, 2018

 
 
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RESEARCH ARTICLES
Chikungunya virus outbreak in Sint Maarten: Long-term arthralgia after a 15-month period
C.M.M. Peters, R Pijnacker, EB Fanoy, L.J.T. Bouwman, LE de Langen, J.H.T.C. van den Kerkhof, J Reimerink, E Pilot, M Henry, V Asin Oostburg, M.A.H. Braks
April-June 2018, 55(2):137-143
DOI:10.4103/0972-9062.242561  PMID:30280712
Background & objectives: The first chikungunya (CHIK) epidemic in the Americas was reported in December 2013. Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) causes an acute febrile illness and is transmitted to humans by Aedes mosquitoes. Although earlier studies have described long-term clinical manifestations of CHIK patients infected with the East/Central/South African (ECSA) genotype, little is known about persistent manifestations in the Caribbean region, for which the Asian genotype is responsible. The objective of this study was to describe the presence of persisting clinical manifestations, specifically arthralgia, in CHIKV-infected patients on the Caribbean Island, Sint Maarten, 15 months after onset of the disease. Methods: This retrospective cohort study included confirmed CHIK patients that were recorded by the participating general practitioners (GPs) during the chikungunya outbreak in 2014 in Sint Maarten. Between March and July 2015, 15 months after the onset of disease, patients were interviewed via telephone about the presence, duration and impact of clinical CHIKV manifestations. Results: In total, 56 patients were interviewed (median age 47 yr), of which 30 (54%) were females. Out of the total interviewed patients, 52 (93%) reported arthralgia for the first three months after the disease onset, of which 23 (44%) patients reported to have persistent arthralgia, 15 months after the disease onset. Pain intensity of persistent arthralgia was perceived as mild in the majority of patients (n = 14; 60%), moderate in 7 (30%) patients and severe in 2 (9%) patients. During the acute phase of disease, most patients had to miss school or work (n = 39; 72%) due to clinical CHIKV manifestations and reported a negative impact on daily activities (n = 36; 57%). Interpretation & conclusion: Results suggested that persisting arthralgia is a frequent complication in CHIK patients included in the study. Future research on strain-specific clinical long-term manifestations and on their impact on daily life of patients, in the form of a comparative study between patients and controls, is recommended.
  3 1,403 264
REVIEW ARTICLES
Role of gut inhabitants on vectorial capacity of mosquitoes
Lekshmi Jayakrishnan, Ambalaparambil Vasu Sudhikumar, Embalil Mathachan Aneesh
April-June 2018, 55(2):69-78
DOI:10.4103/0972-9062.242567  PMID:30280704
Mosquito-borne diseases are spreading at an alarming rate. Globally millions of deaths occur due to the diseases transmitted by mosquitoes, next to AIDS and tuberculosis. Several methods have been used to control these vectors and the diseases caused by them. Earlier studies have shown the potential role of mosquito gut inhabitants on disease transmission. Their findings can be used as an innovative approach for devising strategies to modify the survival of mosquitoes by reducing their lifespan, reproduction and disease transmission abilities. In this study, microbiome of the three genera of mosquitoes, namely Aedes, Anopheles, and Culex along with their vectorial capacity have been reviewed for assessing their role in mosquito control and transmission. Relevant articles were accessed using different databases, including LILACS, Embase, Science Direct and PubMed from inception to June 2017. The search keywords included “Aedes”, “Anopheles”, “Culex”, “gut inhabitants”, “vectors”, and “mosquito”. The titles, abstract, and keywords of the retrieved articles were screened, and eligible research articles were sorted. The review indicates that paratransgenesis may be considered as a versatile and effective strategy to eradicate the spurt of mosquito transmitting diseases. Enterobacter species is the most common type of gram-negative bacteria associated with the gut of all the three genera of mosquitoes. It was found to have a beneficial effect on humans as it helps in destroying dreadful disease-transmitting vectors. These symbiotic qualities of the microbes need to be thoroughly investigated further to reveal their antipathogenic effect on the vector.
  3 3,106 718
RESEARCH ARTICLES
Serological evidence of spotted fever group rickettsiosis in and around Puducherry, south India—A three years study
Selvaraj Stephen, Stanley Ambroise, Dhandapany Gunasekaran, Mohammed Hanifah, Balakrishnan Sangeetha, Jothimani Pradeep, Kengamuthu Sarangapani
April-June 2018, 55(2):144-150
DOI:10.4103/0972-9062.242562  PMID:30280713
Background & objectives: Rickettsial diseases are important re-emerging infections that mostly go unnoticed or are misdiagnosed. Though few case reports of Indian tick typhus have been reported in Indian literature in the past 10 yr, prevalence surveys are few and far between. The objective of this research was to study the seroprevalence of spotted fever (SF) group rickettsiosis and its coinfection with scrub typhus (ST) in Puducherry region of south India, as these two diseases may show similar clinical presentations. Methods: During 2012–2015, paired sera of 320 febrile patients were examined for Rickettsia conorii IgM/IgG by ELISA and OX19 and OX2 agglutinins by Weil-Felix test. Additionally, patients were screened for ST IgM ELISA. Statistical analysis was performed for clinical and laboratory parameters in children and adults using Fisher’s exact test and chi-square test with Yates correction. Results: Out of 320 patients, 142 (44.38%) had R. conorii IgM and/or IgG antibodies. Only IgM was present in 72 (22.5%) patients, while 36 patients were positive for IgG only and 34 were positive for both IgG and IgM. A total of 68 patients (21.25%) showed only OX19 and/or OX2 antibodies (titres ≥ 1 : 80). SF and ST coinfection was observed in 47 cases (14.69%). Interpretation & conclusion: Seroprevalence of SF in Puducherry was found to be quite high (44.38%). ST and SF coinfection was observed in 34.50% of the SG IgG positive patients, however, this require further evaluation by PCR to rule out cross-reaction or false positivity. At present ELISA seems to be an affordable alternative to highly subjective and technically demanding immunofluorescence assay (IFA) for serodiagnosis of SF.
  2 1,725 249
Molecular detection of Dirofilaria immitis in dogs and mosquitoes in Tabasco, Mexico
Oswaldo M Torres-Chable, Carlos M Baak-Baak, Nohemi Cigarroa-Toledo, Bradley J Blitvich, Ligia G Brito-Argaez, Yessenia N Alvarado-Kantun, Claudia V Zaragoza-Vera, Guadalupe Arjona-Jimenez, Lluvia G Moreno-Perez, Pablo Medina-Perez, Carlos I Machain-Williams, Julian E Garcia-Rejon
April-June 2018, 55(2):151-158
DOI:10.4103/0972-9062.242563  PMID:30280714
Background & objectives: Dirofilaria immitis is a filarial nematode that causes heartworm disease in domestic as well as wild canines and felines; and cutaneous or pulmonary infections in humans. The purpose of the study was to estimate the prevalence of D. immitis in domestic dogs in Tabasco, Mexico and to assay mosquitoes temporally and spatially associated with dogs for evidence of infection. Methods: Blood was collected from 1050 dogs in 1039 houses during a random household survey performed in 2016 and 2017. Genomic DNA was extracted and assayed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using pan-filarial primers and various species-specific primers. Dog owners were interviewed using a structured questionnaire designed to collect information on factors that may impact the occurrence of filarial infection. The association between canine dirofilariasis prevalence and factors likely to impact infection was determined by univariate logistic regression analysis, followed by multivariate binomial logistic regression analysis. Indoor and outdoor resting mosquitoes were collected from houses by manual aspiration. Mosquitoes were identified according to species, homogenized and tested by PCR for filarial nematodes. Results: A total of 84 (8%) dogs were positive for D. immitis DNA, while 3 (0.3%) dogs contained Acanthocheilonema reconditum DNA. Several factors were significantly associated with D. immitis infection. For example, dogs that lived <100 m from a large source of open standing water were significantly more likely (p = 0.002) to become infected with D. immitis than other dogs. Additionally, dogs with infrequent or no anthelmintic treatment were significantly more likely (p = 0.0) to become infected than dogs that were regularly treated. The entomologic investigation yielded 2618 female mosquitoes from 14 species. Four pools of Culex quinquefasciatus were positive for D. immitis DNA and the minimum infection rate, calculated as the number of positive pools per 1000 mosquitoes tested, was 2.9. Interpretation & conclusion: The study identified several factors positively associated with an increased risk of D. immitis infection in domestic dogs in Tabasco and provides evidence that Cx. quinquefasciatus is potentially an important vector in this region. This information can be used by local veterinarians and dog owners to reduce the burden of D. immitis on canine health.
  2 1,691 338
Schistosoma mansoni infection in human and nonhuman primates in selected areas of Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia
Tadesse Kebede, Yohanis Negash, Berhanu Erko
April-June 2018, 55(2):116-121
DOI:10.4103/0972-9062.242558  PMID:30280709
Background & objectives: The transmission of schistosomiasis, caused by trematodes of the genus Schistosoma, relies on freshwater snails that act as an intermediate host while human and other mammalian act as the definitive hosts. Many non-human primates (NHPs) such as Chlorocebus aethiops (vervet) and Papio anubis (baboon) are reported to be infected with Schistosoma mansoni in Ethiopia, but the role they play in parasite maintenance and transmission is still not clear. The objective of this study was, therefore, to determine the prevalence of S. mansoni infection in human and NHPs living in close proximities to villages in selected endemic areas of Ethiopia. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, stool specimens were collected from 911 humans, and fresh faecal droppings from 106 NHPs from Bochesa (Ziway), Bishan Gari (Kime) and Finchaa (Camp 7) endemic localities in Oromia Regional State, and examined for S. mansoni and other helminth infections using Kato-Katz method for human participants and direct microscopic examination for NHPs. Results: The prevalence of helminthiasis among the human study population was 42.4% (386/911), and for soil-transmitted helminth infections (A. lumbricoides, hookworms, and T. trichiura) it was 13.4% (122/911). In humans S. mansoni was the predominant parasite, 23.1% (210/911) followed by A. lumbricoides, 8.7% (79/911); hookworms, 5.8% (53/911); T. trichiura, 4.8% (44/911); Taenia species, 2.2% (20/911); E. vermicularis, 2.1% (19/911); and H. nana, 3.2% (29/911). NHPs were found positive for Trichuris species and Strongyloides species besides S. mansoni. Interpretation & conclusion: NHPs might play a significant role in local transmission and maintenance of S. mansoni infection even in the absence of human hosts. This calls for supplementation of chemotherapy for schistosomiasis along with measures such as snail control to interrupt transmission of the disease from humans to NHPs, and vice-versa.
  2 1,461 266
SHORT RESEARCH COMMUNICATIONS
Circulation of all dengue virus serotypes during dengue outbreak in Sandakan, Sabah, Malaysia (2016)
Timothy Jr Gintarong, Amalina Emran, Aza Sherin, Tin Tin Thein, Tin Sabai Aung
April-June 2018, 55(2):168-171
DOI:10.4103/0972-9062.242566  PMID:30280717
  2 1,480 267
RESEARCH ARTICLES
Comparative proteomics of salivary glands of Anopheles culicifacies mosquitoes using tandem mass tag (TMT) mass spectrometry
Ritu Rawal, Sonam Vijay, Kavita Kadian, Tridibesh Adak, Veena Pande, Arun Sharma
April-June 2018, 55(2):98-110
DOI:10.4103/0972-9062.242570  PMID:30280707
Background & objectives: Salivary gland proteins play a pivotal role in blood feeding, epithelial interactions, and parasite transmission in mosquito vectors. Anopheles culicifacies is a complex of five sibling species, viz. A, B, C, D, and E, with diverse geographical distribution patterns. Among these, sibling species B has been identified as poor vector. Exploring the differentially expressed salivary proteins in An. culicifacies may potentially identify refractoriness factors during malaria parasite maturation and may help to elucidate the mechanism of refractoriness. Methods: A comparative proteomic analysis was carried out using tandem mass tag (TMT) technology combined with LC-MS/MS mass spectrometry and bioinformatics analysis, to identify the differentially expressed salivary gland proteins among An. culicifacies species A (susceptible) and An. culicifacies species B (refractory) mosquitoes. Results: A total of 82 proteins were found to be differentially expressed. Out of these, seven proteins including TRIO, translation initiation factor 5C, glutathione S-transferase, and 5’ nucleotidase were up-regulated, and 75 proteins including calreticulin, elongation factors, fructose biphosphatase, isocitrate dehydrogenase, histone proteins and anti-platelet proteins, etc. were down-regulated in refractory species. Analysis of KEGG pathways showed that the up-regulated proteins were related to fatty acid metabolism and RNA transport pathways. Interpretation & conclusion: This comparative proteomic analysis of susceptible and refractory An. culicifacies salivary gland proteins identifies the plausible role of the differential proteome in immune responses, digestion, energy, and carbon metabolic pathways. This information may serve as a basis for future work concerning the possible role of these proteins in refractoriness dependent metabolic function of mosquitoes.
  1 1,909 338
Potent antileishmanial activity of chitosan against Iranian strain of Leishmania major (MRHO/IR/75/ER): In vitro and in vivo assay
Bahman Rahimi Esboei, Mehdi Mohebali, Parisa Mousavi, Mahdi Fakhar, Behnaz Akhoundi
April-June 2018, 55(2):111-115
DOI:10.4103/0972-9062.242557  PMID:30280708
Background & objectives: Leishmaniasis is one of the major neglected zoonotic parasitic diseases whose treatment and control is very complex. Pentavalent antimonials remain the primary drugs against different forms of leishmaniasis, however, resistance to antimony and its toxic effects has necessitated the development of alternative medications such as use of medicinal plants and natural compounds. The aim of the current study was to assess the in vitro and in vivo activities of chitosan as a natural resource against Leishmania major. Methods: Low molecular weight chitosan, with 95% degree of deacetylation was melted in normal saline to a final concentration of 50, 100, 200 and 400 μg/ml. Then, the promastigotes of L. major (Iranian strain) were added to the wells of 96-well plate and 20 μl of each concentration was added to the RPMI 1640 medium. Live and dead promastigotes were counted after adding 0.1% eosin stain. The efficacy of the chitosan was also examined in BALB/c mice infected with Iranian strain of L. major. All in vitro experiments were performed in triplicate and the results of in vitro and in vivo tests were compared to the acetic acid and NaOH as negative control and glucantime as positive control. Results: The low molecular weight chitosan was completely effective at concentrations of 100, 200 and 400 μg/ml on promastigotes of L. major after 180 min of application. Moreover, in the in vivo study, the mean size of dermal lesions significantly decreased in the groups treated with the chitosan compared to the control group. Interpretation & conclusion: According to the results of the study, it can be concluded that chitosan is a potent active compound against L. major and could be evaluated as a new antileishmanial drug in the future.
  1 1,552 291
Coinfections as an aetiology of acute undifferentiated febrile illness among adult patients in the sub-Himalayan region of north India
Sujeet Raina, Rashmi Kaul Raina, Niraj Agarwala, Sunil Kumar Raina, Rajesh Sharma
April-June 2018, 55(2):130-136
DOI:10.4103/0972-9062.242560  PMID:30280711
Background & objectives: In India, certain geographic regions witness simultaneous outbreaks of two or more diseases like scrub typhus, dengue fever, malaria, leptospirosis and chikungunya during monsoon and post-monsoon period, sharing common indication of acute febrile illness. The objective of the present study was to assess the prevalence of coinfections among patients with acute undifferentiated fevers (AUF) admitted in a tertiary care hospital in the northern hilly state of Himachal Pradesh, India. Methods: This was a hospital based open cohort study conducted over a period of two months (September and October) in 2016. All the patients above the age of 18 yr admitted in medical wards and fulfilling the definition of AUF were included. The patients diagnosed with dual infections were the subjects of the study. Standard guidelines were used for case definitions of scrub typhus, dengue, chikungunya, malaria and leptospirosis. Results: Dual infections were noted in 16 patients admitted with AUF. The most common coinfection was scrub typhus and dengue, reported in 10 patients. Scrub typhus and leptospirosis coinfection was observed in three patients. Dengue and chikungunya was observed in one patient. Scrub typhus, dengue and vivax malaria was detected in one patient. Scrub typhus and vivax malaria was detected in one patient. Out of the 10 cases positive for both scrub and dengue, four had no history of travel outside Himachal Pradesh. All three cases positive for both scrub and leptospirosis were indigenous without any history of travel outside Kangra, Himachal Pradesh. The outcome of all the patients was with full recovery. Interpretation & conclusion: The study established the presence of coinfections (mainly dengue fever and leptospirosis) as a cause of AUF in the study area, which is a nonendemic region. The role of easily available and widely performed serological tests in the aetiological diagnosis of AUF is significant. Studies are required to determine the normal titres in the local population before using the imported commercially available serological tests in the diagnosis of AUF.
  1 1,983 328
Small-scale (Phase II) evaluation of the efficacy and residual activity of SumiShield® 50 WG (clothianidin 50%, w/w) for indoor residual spraying in comparison to deltamethrin, bendiocarb and pirimiphos-methyl for malaria vector control in Karnataka state, India
U Sreehari, K Raghavendra, SN Tiwari, S Sreedharan, SK Ghosh, N Valecha
April-June 2018, 55(2):122-129
DOI:10.4103/0972-9062.242559  PMID:30280710
Background & objectives: There is an urgent need of introducing new insecticide molecules with novel modes of action to counter the ever growing insecticide-resistance in mosquito vectors. In the present study, a new insecticide molecule, SumiShield 50 WG (clothianidin 50%, w/w) was investigated for its efficacy as an indoor residual spray along with its residual action in comparison to deltamethrin, pirimiphos-methyl and bendiocarb. Methods: The study area included three villages in Almatti Dam catchment area in Bagalkot district, Karnataka, India. Spraying was done using Hudson sprayers with the following dosages—Clothianidin, 300 mg AI/m2; deltamethrin, 25 mg AI/m2; bendiocarb, 400 mg AI/m2; and pirimiphos-methyl, 1 g AI/m2. Cone bioassays were conducted on cement and mud plastered surfaces at fortnightly intervals to assess the bioefficacy and residual activity. Mosquito densities in the sprayed houses were recorded at regular intervals for assessment of the insecticidal efficacy. Filter paper samples collected from the sprayed houses were analyzed for insecticide content sprayed on different wall surfaces at the Walloon Agricultural Research Institute, Gembloux, Belgium. Results: Chemical content analysis of filter paper samples revealed that the applied to target ratios were in the acceptable range (1 + 0.5) for all the treatment types. Duration of persistence of effectiveness of bendiocarb (≥80% mortality in cone bioassays) was 19 to 21 wk on cement plastered surfaces and 15 to 19 wk on mud plastered surfaces. Duration of persistence of effectiveness of deltamethrin was 17 to 21 wk on both mud and cement plastered surfaces and that of pirimiphos-methyl was 15 to 19 wk. For SumiShield, it was 17 to 25 wk on both types of surfaces, indicating slow action of SumiShield. The densities of Anopheles culicifacies were lower in bendiocarb sprayed houses throughout the observation period, followed by pirimiphos methyl, deltamethrin and clothianidin sprayed houses. In case of other mosquitoes also, similar trend was observed. Interpretation & conclusion: Considering the persistence of effectiveness of SumiShield on sprayed surfaces, effectiveness in reducing the density of mosquitoes, operational feasibility, safety and community acceptance, the formulation of clothianidin is a better option for IRS for the control of insecticide-resistant mosquito vectors.
  - 1,767 234
Transcriptional responses of attractin gene in the mosquito Anopheles culicifacies: A synergistic neuro-olfactory regulation
Tanwee Das De, Yasha Hasija, Rajnikant Dixit
April-June 2018, 55(2):89-97
DOI:10.4103/0972-9062.242569  PMID:30280706
Background & objectives: Attractin, is a large multi-domain protein which has regulatory functions in multiple physiological processes and thus have strong therapeutic potential. In invertebrates, it was first identified as a water-borne protein pheromone that plays important role in chemical communication and coordinates reproductive activities. But its role in mosquitoes/insects remains unknown. Our unexpected discovery of attractin homolog from the olfactory tissue of Anopheles culicifacies mosquito prompted us to investigate the possible role of Ac-attractin (Ac-atrn) in diverse behavioural responses, e.g. feeding, mating and other non-genetic stresses. Methods: A homology search analysis was performed to identify the full length attractin (Ac-atrn) gene of Anopheles culicifacies mosquito. To unravel its molecular function during external and internal stresses, extensive real-time PCR was performed in the neuro-olfactory tissues of the adult mosquitoes as well as in the larval stages. Further, a behavioural assay was conducted to elucidate its role in mosquitoes mating behaviour. Results: The results indicated that Ac-atrn is a 3942 bp long transcript which encodes a 1313 amino acid protein, having multiple domains including CUB, EGF, Keltch, etc, with 80–90% homology to other insect/mosquito homologs. Ac-atrn gene was dominantly expressed in the young larvae and its expression was elevated in response to the fresh food supply in the starved larvae. Cold stress temporarily arrested the expression of Ac-atrn gene. In case of adult mosquitoes, olfactory and brain tissue showed relatively higher expression of Ac-atrn than reproductive organs. Although, starvation did not yield significant changes in olfactory tissues, but aging and nutritional stress modulated Ac-atrn expression in the brain tissue. Furthermore, a circadian rhythm dependent change in the expression of Ac-atrn of virgin and mated mosquitoes (both sexes), indicates that Ac-atrn might also have a pheromone guided role during swarm formation and mating behaviour. Interpretation & conclusion: The relative expression profiling of Ac-atrn gene in the larvae during nutritional and cold stress suggested its possible role in mediating chemical communication towards the food source and in thermal regulation of young larvae. Similarly, it might have crucial regulatory role in the stress management and survival of adult mosquitoes. The results revealed that Ac-atrn gene is a global regulator of many physiological processes in mosquitoes including stress response and mating behaviour and thus might be a potential target to design novel intervention strategy against mosquitoes.
  - 1,546 284
REVIEW ARTICLES
Predictive and diagnostic test accuracy of ultrasonography in differentiating severe dengue from nonsevere dengue
Gary Kim-Kuan Low, Sing-Yan Looi, Mun-Hin Yong, Deepali Sharma
April-June 2018, 55(2):79-88
DOI:10.4103/0972-9062.242568  PMID:30280705
Diagnosing severe dengue from those who do not develop complication is important to prevent death. The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate the diagnostic test accuracy of ultrasonography in differentiating severe dengue from nonsevere dengue; and to assess if ultrasonography/ultrasound can be used as a predictive (screening) and diagnostic tool in the course of dengue infection. An electronic search was conducted in different databases via OvidSP platform. The included studies were cohort studies between 1995 and 2016 wherein cases were confirmed by dengue blood test. Severity of dengue was assessed and compared using standard WHO references. The methodological quality of the paper was assessed by two independent reviewers by using QUADAS-2 tool. In total 12 studies were included in this review after suitable screening. Overall, the studies included had a low and unclear risk of bias. Seven out of nine studies that compared severe dengue and nonsevere dengue, performed an ultrasonography on gallbladder (wall thickness cutoff–3 mm) with a sensitivity of 24.2–100% and a specificity of 13.2–98.7%. Other parameters such as splenic subcapsular fluid collection, pericardial fluid and hepatic subcapsular fluid collection had a specificity of >90%, though the sensitivity was poor. There were insufficient evidence that ultrasonography is able to differentiate severe dengue from nonsevere dengue accurately. The predictive and diagnostic value of ultrasonography could not be concluded due to insufficient reporting on the temporality of the ultrasonography performed with regard to the diagnosis. However, it might serve as an adjunct investigation to support the clinical diagnosis.
  - 1,991 402
SHORT RESEARCH COMMUNICATIONS
Nontoxic water soluble nanocarbons prevent respiration of mosquito larvae, causing anoxia
Subrata Ghosh, Gouri Sankar Das, Rakhi Majumdar, Sabyasachi Sarkar
April-June 2018, 55(2):159-164
DOI:10.4103/0972-9062.242564  PMID:30280715
  - 1,274 224
Diagnostic validation of IgM and IgG ELISA and real-time PCR in detecting scrub typhus infection in endemic regions
Vinita Rawat, Rajesh Kumar Singh, Ashok Kumar, Yatendera Singh, Preeti Chaturvedi, Sandeep Raj Saxena, Umesh Varshney
April-June 2018, 55(2):165-167
DOI:10.4103/0972-9062.242565  PMID:30280716
  - 1,842 273