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Year : 2017  |  Volume : 54  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 334-340

Entomological determinants of malaria transmission in an epidemic prone area of District Nuh (Haryana state), India

ICMR–National Institute of Malaria Research, New Delhi, India

Correspondence Address:
Nutan Nanda
Scientist ‘G’ (Retd.), 8/1 Block 41, Singh Sabha Road, Shakti Nagar, Delhi–110 007
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/0972-9062.225838

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Background & objectives: Entomological investigations were carried out in highly malarious villages under Ujina PHC of District Nuh (Haryana state) which is an epidemic prone area in northwestern region of India. The study was aimed to have an in-depth understanding of the entomological parameters influencing malaria transmission in the study area. Methods: The seasonal prevalence and biological attributes of vector mosquitoes were investigated during 2015 and 2016. Indoor resting vector mosquitoes were collected from human dwellings/cattle sheds and morphologically identified. Anopheles culicifacies were categorized to sibling species by species-specific inversions in polytene chromosomes and An. stephensi to ecological races on the basis of ridge number on egg float. The blood meal source analysis and incrimination studies of vectors were done by counter-current immunoelectrophoresis and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. Insecticide susceptibility test on vectors was performed as per WHO guidelines. Results: Seasonal abundance of An. culicifacies and An. stephensi in the study area showed variation; the peak densities of both the vectors were observed during monsoon months which correlated well with the average monthly rainfall data. Though both vectors were found to be primarily zoophagic, the human blood index of An. culicifacies (HBI = 0.17) was significantly higher than that of An. stephensi (HBI= 0.02). Analysis of sibling species composition of An. culicifacies population showed that it comprised almost of sibling species A (>98%) which is an established malaria vector. Anopheles culicifacies was incriminated for Plasmodium vivax and P. falciparum circumsporozoite (CS) antigen during monsoon months in 2015 and 2016. Assessment of insecticide susceptibility status of malaria vectors against 0.5% deltamethrin revealed that An. culicifacies is more susceptible (95% mortality) than An. stephensi (85% mortality). Interpretation & conclusion: The results suggest that An. culicifacies (species A) is playing a major role in malaria transmission in the study area and is almost susceptible to deltamethrin. Timely two rounds of indoor residual spray of synthetic pyrethroid with proper dosage and good coverage would be helpful in reducing vector population and consequently the malaria incidence. In addition, personal protection measures by the community would supplement the major intervention tool (IRS) in decreasing the man-vector contact.

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