|Year : 2019 | Volume
| Issue : 4 | Page : 281-287
Scientific research publications in dengue: A global and Indian bibliometric analysis from 1997 to 2018
S Satish, J Vasna
ICMR–National Institute of Epidemiology, Ayapakkam, Chennai, India
|Date of Submission||09-Aug-2018|
|Date of Acceptance||19-Jul-2019|
|Date of Web Publication||30-Nov-2020|
Dr. J Vasna
ICMR–National Institute of Epidemiology, Second Main Road, Tamil Nadu Housing Board, Ayapakkam, Near Ambattur, Chennai–600 077, Tamila Nadu
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Dengue fever is common in tropical and subtropical countries of the world and its present impact is 30 times more than what it was 50 yr ago. The aim of the study was to analyze the research output/publications on dengue across the world as well as in India, using the Web of Science database. Literature search was done using the keyword ‘dengue’ in the title field to find global and Indian publications on dengue from 1 June 1997 to 20 July 2018. Bibliometric analysis was done on the basis of the magnitude of research output; year, type and language of publications; citations and h-index, impact factor, keywords, most productive institutes etc. Descriptive analysis was performed using MS Office, Word Cloud Generator and SPSS software.
The analysis of the records obtained indicated that globally 11,742 articles were published on dengue during the period of 21 yr of which 1114 were Indian. The country with highest number of publications was United States (3449; 29.37%) while India ranked third (1114; 9.48%). Majority of the published articles where in the American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene (1366; 11.63%) and the leading journal in India was Indian Journal of Medical Research (56; 5.02%) followed by the Journal of Vector Borne Diseases (42; 3.77%). The most productive Institute at global level was ‘Mahidol University, Thailand’ while in the Indian context it was ‘All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi’. The elevated metrics of citation, impact factor, and h-index are based on the magnitude of scientific research outputs. Increasing trend in the number of publications over the years both globally as well as in India indicates overall growth in dengue research. Even though it is a good sign of productivity it is still significantly related to the magnitude of occurrence of dengue cases across the globe. Further, it is a good indication that the scientific community is dynamic and responding well in bringing out the regional scenarios to the public for health promotion.
Keywords: Bibliometric analysis; dengue; global; India; Web of science
|How to cite this article:|
Satish S, Vasna J. Scientific research publications in dengue: A global and Indian bibliometric analysis from 1997 to 2018. J Vector Borne Dis 2019;56:281-7
|How to cite this URL:|
Satish S, Vasna J. Scientific research publications in dengue: A global and Indian bibliometric analysis from 1997 to 2018. J Vector Borne Dis [serial online] 2019 [cited 2021 Oct 18];56:281-7. Available from: https://www.jvbd.org/text.asp?2019/56/4/281/302029
| Introduction|| |
Dengue fever (DF), a mosquito borne viral disease, is considered as a maj or public health problem worldwide. The first record of a probable DF case was reported in a Chinese medical encyclopedia of Jin Dynasty (265–420 AD), which was referred to as ‘water poison’ associated with flying insects.
Dengue is predominantly endemic in tropical countries, which includes at least 100 countries in Asia, Africa, America, Pacific and Caribbean islands. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), 2.5 billion people, i.e., two-fifth of the world’s population in tropical and subtropical countries are at the risk of the disease. An estimated 50 million dengue infections occur worldwide annually and approximately 500,000 people require hospitalisation every year. Dengue virus was isolated in Japan in 1943 by inoculating the serum of patients in suckling mice and at Kolkata in 1944 from serum samples of US soldiers. The first epidemic of clinical dengue-like illness was recorded in Chennai in 1780 and the first virologically proven epidemic of DF in India occurred in Calcutta and Eastern Coast of India,, during 1963 to 1964.
India has reported about the increased incidence of concurrent infection with multiple serotypes of dengue viruses (DENVs). In India, the epidemic is becoming more frequent and the risk of dengue has been increasing in recent years due to rapid urbanisation, lifestyle changes and deficient water management including improper water storage practices in urban, peri-urban and rural areas. Millions of cases of DF have been reported annually, with hundreds and thousands of cases of dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) accounting for 5 to 15% mortality worldwide, mostly in children. The objective of the study was to explore and quantify the scientific output on dengue research in terms of various metrics globally as well as in India using the Web of Science database.
There are a number of medical databases which offer search facilities on a specified subject including citation analysis, like PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, Web of Science, and EMBASE. This study was focused only on the Web of Science database maintained by Clarivate Analytics, United States. It is one of the world’s most trusted and comprehensive global citation database that provide publication and citation data for research and analysis. Hence, the bibliometric analysis for the scientific research output on dengue was performed using the online version of Web of Science. The research output was analysed from 1 June 1997 to 20 July 2018. For the bibliometric analysis, the keyword ‘dengue’ was used in the title during search. Descriptive analysis was performed globally as well as for India using the following parameters:
- Magnitude of dengue research output by the year of publications.
- Types of publications (original research articles, review articles, meeting abstract, letters, proceedings, and other miscellaneous documents such as book chapters, book reviews, correction edition, news items).
- Focused research areas of dengue (field of diagnosis, treatment, vaccination, epidemic, prevention against dengue, etc.).
- Research articles on dengue by the language of publications.
- Leading research articles on dengue by the country with the number of citations and h-index.
- Use of keywords.
- Foremost researchers who published articles in dengue with their number of publications and h-index.
- Leading dengue (subject specific) journals with their impact factors.
- Leading dengue research articles by the authors with their affiliations, number of times the article is cited and h-index.
- Foremost productive Institutes that published research articles on dengue.
The analysis was performed using MS Office, Wordcloud Generator and SPSS software version 21.
Magnitude of dengue research output by the year of publication
Globally 11,742 records on dengue research were retrieved using the Web of Science database from 1 June 1997 to 20 July 2018. The analysis of the data showed a gradual increase in dengue research publications both globally and in India for the past two decades. The dengue research growth (global) increased from 101 (0.86%) in 1997 to 1310 (11.15%) in 2017.
The dengue research output in India consisted 1,108 research documents. It increased from <1% (5 in number) in 1997 to 11.1% (123 in number). The top 10 countries’ growth over years is shown in [Table 1]. The trend over the years, both globally and in India are shown in [Figure 1]. We observed a global decline of 0.5% in 2016 in dengue research output. This could be attributed to various reasons such as delay in publication or numerous dengue cases to investigate.
|Table 1: Top 10 countries with year-wise distribution of dengue research publications, globally and in India, 1997–2018|
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|Figure 1: Year-wise distribution of dengue research publications, globally and in India, 1997–2018.|
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Types of publications
Categorization of the global dengue research output on the basis of publication type indicated that there were 7,831 (66%) original research articles, 576 (4.9%) reviews, 2,063 (17.57%) meeting abstracts, 602 (5.13%) letters, 83 (0.71%) proceeding papers, and 585 (4.98%) other miscellaneous documents, such as book chapters, reviews, book reviews, correction edition, and news items.
The Indian dengue research output included 731 (65.61%) original research articles, 52 (4.69%) reviews, 98 (8.84%) meeting abstracts, 51 (4.60%) editorials, 178 (16.06%) letters/correspondence, and 7 (0.63%) conference proceeding papers.
Focused research areas of dengue
Globally, the major focused areas included tropical medicine, infectious diseases, virology, immunology, parasitology, microbiology, biotechnology, applied micro-biology, pharmacology, entomology, diagnosis, treatment, vaccination, epidemic, prevention against dengue, etc.
In India, major research areas were public environmental occupational health, research experimental medicine, microbiology, infectious diseases, tropical medicine, diagnosis, treatment, vaccination, hematology, neuro-science, etc.
Dengue research articles by language of publications
The majority (97.74%; 11477) of the research publications in the world were in English, followed by Spanish (1.02%; 120) and Russian (0.009%; 1). In India, the research publications were only in English (100%; 1,114) [Figure 2].
|Figure 2: Global dengue research articles by language of publications during 1997–2018.|
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Leading dengue research articles by country with number of citations and h-index
The top 10 leading countries out of 100 countries (including India) with respect to dengue publications are shown in [Table 2]. United States ranked first in scientific production with 3,449 publications and 1,07,838 citations, followed by Brazil (1,265 publications with 17,106 citations), India (1,114 publications with 11,597 citations) and Thailand (1,077 publications with 29,513 citations). The authors from United States (140) scored the highest h-index, followed by Thailand (89) and England (82). India scored an h-index of 46.
|Table 2: Top 10 countries with highest number of dengue publications along with their citations and h-index, 1997–2018|
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Use of keywords
The keywords were taken from highly cited research articles and entered in the Wordcloud Generator (tagging tool). Results are shown in [Figure 3]. The keywords ‘dengue’, ‘virus’ and ‘Aedes’ appeared larger in size (indicating frequent usage) than other keywords globally as well as for India.
|Figure 3: Dengue research output based on keywords, generated using Wordcloud Generator, 1997–2018.|
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Leading dengue journals with their impact factors
According to the Web of Science database, the top 10 journals publishing dengue related articles at global level are shown in [Table 3]. Maximum number of the articles were published in the American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene (1,366 publications; 11.63%), followed by PLoS Neglected Tropical Disease with 505 publications (4.3%), PLoS One with 359 publications (3.05%), Journal of Virology with 289 publications (2.46%), and International Journal of Infectious Diseases with 265 publications (2.26%).
|Table 3: Top 10 leading journals in dengue research at global level with their impact factors (Thomson Reuters, now Clarivate Analytics), 1997–2018|
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The analysis showed that Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal had the highest impact factor of 8.22. Eight journals had an impact factor ranging between 2.532 and 4.663.
The leading dengue research publishing journals from India [Table 4] were the Indian Journal of Medical Research with 56 publications (5.02%) followed by Journal of Vector Borne Diseases and International Journal of Infectious Diseases, having 42 (3.77%) publications each. Seven journals had an impact factor in the range of 0.450 to 2.549.
|Table 4: Top eight leading journals in dengue research from India with their impact factors (Clarivate Analytics) 1997–2018|
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Leading dengue research articles according to total citations and average citation/year
Citation analysis with h-index in dengue publication using Web of Science database in top five countries from 1997 to 2018 is shown in [Table 5]. Golbally, the highest cited article was published in the year 2013 in ‘Nature’ with 2,382 citations and average citation per year of 397. The following four articles were also frequently cited. In India, the most cited article by Indian authors was published in 2005 in the ‘Journal of Clinical Microbiology’ and the total number of citations was 188, with an average citation per year of 13.43. The details of next four cited articles are shown in [Table 6]. It took a minimum of 6 months for an article to get published both globally and in India.
|Table 5: Five foremost cited research articles with date of publication in dengue at global level, 1997–2018|
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|Table 6: Five foremost cited dengue research articles by Indian authors with date of publication, 1997–2018|
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Ten most productive Institutes publishing research articles on dengue
The 10 most productive Institutes at global level in the field of dengue research from 1997 to 2018 are shown in [Table 7]. Mahidol University, Thailand, with 551 publications, 16,629 citations and 67 as the h-index was the leading institution. In India, the All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi was most productive institution having 69 publications with 1,043 citations and an h-index of 18. Defense Research Development Organization, New Delhi had 55 publications with 932 citations and an h-index of 18 followed by the Indian Council of Medical Research, New Delhi, with 55 publications, 821 citations and an h-index of 15. More details are shown in [Table 8].
|Table 7: Top 10 productive Institutes at global level in the field of dengue research, 1997–2018|
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|Table 8: Top 10 productive Institutes in India in the field of dengue research, 1997–2018|
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In the present study, a bibliometric approach was employed to analyse the research outputs of dengue at the global and Indian levels, using the Web of Science database for the period from 1 June 1997 to 20 July 2018. There was a strong correlation between the magnitude of research at the global level and in India (r = 0.982). The publication trend analysis revealed that for every increase of 84 publications worldwide, one publication was contributed from India. Moreover, it was observed that approximately in every 10 days, there was an increase of 80 to 90 publications globally and one publication from India in dengue research.
Our findings are consistent with the earlier bibliometric analyses performed using other databases, like Scopus for the period 1872–2015; Web of Science, for the period 1945–2014 and PubMed for the period 2003–2012 . The above-mentioned bibliometric studies conveyed similar findings of an overall upward growth trend in publications. The leading countries in dengue research publications are United States, Brazil and India. Globally, American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene was the leading journal for dengue publication and in India it was the Indian Journal of Medical Research. The overall scenario of upward growth could be attributed to the occurrence of several explosive outbreaks or higher number of reported/diagnosed cases in the country, which subsequently, would have made the situation more conducive for productive scientific research on dengue or it may also be due to a journal’s special focus on dengue research publications.
Ethical statement: Not applicable.
Conflict of interest
The authors do not have any conflict of interest to declare.
| Conclusion|| |
Increasing trend in the number of publications over the years both globally as well as in India indicates overall growth in dengue research. The elevated metrics of citations, impact factor, and h-index are based on the magnitude of scientific research outputs. Although it is a good sign of productivity, it is still significantly related to the magnitude of occurrence of dengue cases across the globe. Further, it is a good indication that the scientific community is dynamic and responding well in bringing out the regional scenarios to the public for health promotion.
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[Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3]
[Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4], [Table 5], [Table 6], [Table 7], [Table 8]