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Occurrence of major and potential malaria vector immature stages in different breeding habitats and associated biotic and abiotic characters in the Trincomalee district of Sri Lanka

1 Molecular Medicine Unit, Faculty of Medicine, University of Kelaniya, Ragama, Sri Lanka
2 Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Kelaniya, Ragama, Sri Lanka

Correspondence Address:
MD Hapugoda,
Molecular Medicine Unit, Faculty of Medicine, University of Kelaniya, Ragama
Sri Lanka
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/0972-9062.308806

Background & objectives: Understanding the effect of biotic and abiotic factors on the biology and ecology of immature stages of anopheline larvae is very important in controlling malaria vector mosquitoes. Therefore, this study was focused on the monitoring of ecological factors affecting the distribution, dynamics, and density of malaria vector mosquitoes in the District of Trincomalee, Sri Lanka. Methods: Permanent and temporary breeding habitats were identified and selected from five possible malaria sensitive sites in the Trincomalee district. Anopheles larvae and macro-invertebrates were collected using standard methods for 16 months (from October 2013 to January 2015) and they were identified microscopically. Eight physico-chemical parameters of the breeding habitats were measured. Results: Overall, a total of 4815 anopheline larvae belonging to 13 species were collected from 3,12,764 dips from 18 permanent and temporary breeding habitats. The abundance of anopheline larvae showed a significant positive correlation (p <0.05) with physico-chemical parameters in breeding habitats, such as temperature, dissolved oxygen, and turbidity. A total of 35 macro-invertebrate taxa were collected from the anopheline mosquito breeding habitats. Interpretation & conclusion: This study represents the first systematic update of water quality parameters, macro-invertebrate communities associated with Anopheles mosquito oviposition sites in the District of Trincomalee, Sri Lanka. Rainfall intensity and wind speed are critical meteorological factors for the distribution and abundance of malaria vectors. Knowledge generated on the ecology of Anopheles mosquitoes will help to eliminate malaria vectors in the country.

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