Epidemiological survey on Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in southwestern Iran
Ameneh Karimi1, Elham Jahanifard2, Mohammad Reza Abai1, Yavar Rassi1, Arshad Veysi3, Ahmad Ali Hanafi-Bojd1, Mostafa Hosseini4, Zahra Saeidi1, Mahdieh Tavakoli5, Mehdi Maleki5, Reza Jafari6, Abdul Rahman Hejazi5, Mohammad Reza Yaghoobi-Ershadi1, Amir Ahmad Akhavan1
1 Department of Medical Entomology and Vector Control, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
2 Department of Medical Entomology and Vector Control, School of Public Health, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran
3 Zoonoses Research Center, Research Institute for Health Development, Kurdistan University of Medical sciences, Sanandaj, Iran
4 Department of Epidemiology and biostatistics, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
5 Ahvaz Health Center, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran
6 Esfahan Training and Health Research Center, National Institute of Health Research, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Esfahan, Iran
Amir Ahmad Akhavan,
Department of Medical Entomology and Vector Control, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Background & objectives: Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is still a public health threat in many rural areas of Iran. It causes considerable morbidity among a huge number of people in the endemic areas. Khuzestan is considered as a CL focus in Iran and recently several cases have been reported from Shush County. The aim of the current study was to determine different aspects of CL epidemiology in this County.
Methods: The study was conducted in four villages, in the rural district of Shush County. In order to survey the scar and acute rate of the disease, 100 inhabitants were questioned in each village. In addition, to determine the reservoir host and vector of the disease, rodents were captured using Sherman traps, and sandflies were collected from around the rodent burrows using sticky paper traps.
Results: The scar and acute lesion rates reported as 5.26 and 0.57% among inhabitants, respectively. Fifty-four rodents including Tatera indica (55.5%), Nesokia indica (33.3%), Mus musculus (9.3%) and Rattus norvegicus (1.9%) were captured and identified. Nested PCR showed 3 out of 54 rodents infected with Leishmania major. In total, 1122 sandflies were collected, and Leishmania major detected in Phlebotomus papatasi (4.35%), Sergentomyia dentata (23%), and Sergentomyia clydei (10%).
Interpretation & conclusion: Zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis due to L. major prevailed in this area. The common and the main vector was Ph. papatasi and, T. indica seems to be the main while N. indica as a secondary reservoir host of the disease in this area.