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Prevalence of dengue vectors, larval breeding habitats, Stegomyia indices and their correlation with dengue cases in urban and rural areas of Punjab, India

1 National vector borne disease control Programme 34-A Chandigarh, Punjab-160022, India
2 National Institute of Malaria Research Centre, Dhakoli, S.A.S. Nagar, Punjab -160104, India
3 Department of Zoology, Lovely Professional University, Jalandhar, Punjab, India
4 Gian Sagar Medical College, Banur, Punjab, India

Correspondence Address:
GS Grover,
Department of Health & Family Welfare, Parivar Kalyan Bhavan, Sector 34-A, Chandigarh
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/0972-9062.313966

Background & objectives: The state of Punjab is highly endemic for dengue fever as high number of confirmed dengue cases have been reported since 2013. A better understanding of vectors distribution and their seasonal variation is necessary to control the disease. Therefore, the present study was conducted in both rural and urban areas of 11 out of 22 districts of the Punjab to highlight seasonal prevalence of Aedes vector mosquitoes. Methods: Entomological surveys were carried out in different seasons and all kinds of indoor and outdoor breeding habitats were examined and Aedes immatures were collected. The Stegomyia indices were calculated and compared from urban and rural areas in different seasons. Results: Both vectors of dengue, i.e. Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus were recorded to be prevalent. Ae. aegypti mosquitoes were observed in all districts surveyed while and Ae. albopictus were found only in seven districts of Punjab. The Stegomyia indices were significantly high during monsoon as compared to pre- and post- monsoon periods. Occurrence of dengue cases were found to be correlated with the Stegomyia indices. Interpretation & conclusion: This is the first detailed study of prevalence of dengue mosquito vectors in Punjab showing the presence of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus in both urban and rural areas of the state, thereby demonstrating wide distribution of this vector. Different breeding habitats identified in the study should be subjected to targeted intervention such as source reduction in order to achieve effective control of dengue cases.

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